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Erectile dysfunction, heart disease and other vascular diseases: The root cause of the narrowing of the arteries is caused by atheroma. Atheroma is like fatty patches or plaques that develop within the inside lining of arteries. (This is similar to water pipes that get furred up with scale.) Plaques of atheroma may gradually form over a number of years in one or more places in the body, commonly in arteries going to the heart, brain, legs and penis. In time, these can become bigger and cause enough narrowing of one or more of the arteries to cause symptoms and problems. Prostaglandin E1 injection test is sometimes performed to determine the penile blood flow. Prostaglandin is directly injected into the corpora cavernosa in order to cause dilation of blood vessels and promote blood flow into the penis. If erection ensues, it confirms normal or adequate blood flow to the penis. This can also provide information about possible therapeutic options. Modern drug therapy for ED made a significant advance in 1983, when British physiologist Giles Brindley, Ph.D. dropped his trousers and demonstrated to a shocked Urodynamics Society audience his papaverine-induced erection. The drug Brindley injected into his penis was a non-specific vasodilator, an alpha-blocking agent, and the mechanism of action was clearly corporal smooth muscle relaxation. The effect that Brindley discovered established the fundamentals for the later development of specific, safe, orally effective drug therapies.[better source needed][better source needed] Who should not use tadalafil (Cialis)? Tadalafil can cause hypotension (abnormally low blood pressure, which can lead to fainting and even shock) when given to patients who are taking nitrates. Patients taking nitrates daily should not take tadalafil. Most commonly used nitrates are medications to relieve angina (chest pain due to insufficient blood supply to heart muscle because of narrowing of the coronary arteries). These include nitroglycerine tablets, patches, ointments, sprays, pastes, and isosorbide dinitrate and isosorbide mononitrate. Other nitrates such as amyl nitrate and butyl nitrate are found in some recreational drugs called "poppers." There have been rare reports of priapism (prolonged and painful erections lasting more than six hours) with the use of PDE5 inhibitors such as sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil, especially when sildenafil is used in combination with injection of medications into the corpora cavernosa or intraurethral suppositories. Patients with blood cell diseases such as sickle cell anemia, leukemia, and multiple myeloma have higher than normal risks of developing priapism. Untreated priapism can cause injury to the penis and lead to permanent impotence. Therefore, sildenafil should not be used in combination with intraurethral suppositories and corpora cavernosa injections. If there is prolonged erection (longer than four hours), immediate medical assistance should be obtained. How Is Male Sexual Dysfunction Treated? Many cases of sexual dysfunction can be corrected by treating the underlying physical or psychological problems. Treatment strategies may include the following: Psychological therapy: Therapy with a trained counselor can help a person address feelings of anxiety, fear, or guilt that may have an impact on sexual function. buy viagra online url buy viagra
How Common Is Erectile Dysfunction? A much more common problem that affects the majority of men at some point in their life is the occasional failure to achieve an erection, which can occur for a variety of reasons, such as from drinking too much alcohol or from being extremely tired.