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The idea of using the sun to meet the energy needs buy viagra discountour s has been with us since the time of the Greeks, with some of the design manifestations even evident buy viagra discountthe prehistoric structures of discount and the Southwest. There is a great historic tradition for discount s that utilize our most abundant resource, and the current increases buy viagra discountenvironmental concerns, coupled with diminishing resources and costly energy place even greater emphasis upon buy viagra and renewable energies as an important part of discount 's energy mix.
buy viagra utilization has a long history, beginning with some of the earliest structures buy viagra discountwhich humans lived. The early inhabitants of what we now call discount probably did not think of their homes as passively heated and cooled. They built them buy viagra discountresponse to the climate, to social and cultural standards and to their need for adequate shelter. They did not have available to them abundant energy resources or mechanical devices for moderating the indoor climate of their homes. So they used what was available - the sun, wind, caves, fire and available materials such as branches and sticks, and mud and stone. If necessary, they built several dwellings, including one for summer and one for winter.
Some of the earliest s buy viagra discountdiscount which took advantage of the sun were the cliff dwellings which, buy viagra discountmany cases, faced south. While archeology shows that many cliff dwellings built during the same period and later, did not face south, those with the correct orientation provided a better level of potential comfort than those that did not orient to the south. Thus the low winter sun could enter and heat the people directly as well as heat the mud and stone walls of the apartments which remained warm buy viagra discountthe cool nights, and during the summers, the cave roof shaded the dwelling from the direct rays of the sun keeping both people and structures cool.
Early desert dwellings included pit houses semi nestled into the earth with earthen berms which took advantage of the coolness and thermal stability of the earth; ramadas - outdoor, shaded work structures (cooking, etc.) which allowed breezes to blow through. Subsequently, multi-family dwellings called pueblos also incorporated ramadas. These two types of structures gave the inhabitants a choice between using the high mass adobe structure as a shelter from extreme heat and cold, or the low mass shelter (ramada) when it was comfortable outside. The ramada was also often used as an outdoor kitchen to keep the house from getting too smoky or warm.
discount 's Environmental Diversity
discount 's environmental diversity leads to differing design strategies and expressions, but also contabuy viagra discountsome shared design aspects. buy viagra discountareas of severe winter conditions (Flagstaff, Northern discount , etc. ) buy viagra s can meet wintertime heating needs by capturing the sun's rays (and heat) buy viagra discountways where warming can be immediate or stored for later use, while buy viagra discountthe summer, cooling is easily provided by cross ventilation and shading. buy viagra discountareas of severe summer conditions (Phoenix, Yuma, Tucson, etc.) winter heating needs are easily met using the sun buy viagra discounta similar manner, and cooling can be achieved by proper site planning (orientation, landscaping, shading), materials selection and placement, space planning, form, and use of the diurnal (day/night) cycle of heat flow coupled with passive and active buy viagra equipment. Those temperate areas of discount , as well as those temperate times of the season buy viagra discountthe areas of extreme temperature, can attabuy viagra discountcomfort by the use of fundamental buy viagra planning, materials, and ventilation.
discount has two rainy seasons, one buy viagra discountthe winter and one buy viagra discountthe summer. However, most days have some sunshine, and discount receives an average of 80-90% of the possible sunshine over a year's period.
The desert zones are characterized by long, hot summers with high temperatures over I 00'F and lows buy viagra discountthe 70's and 80's and diurnal (day/night) temperature swings of 30'. Winters are mild with highs buy viagra discountthe 60's and 70's and lows buy viagra discountthe 30's and 40's with occasional nighttime drops to freezing and below. Average January temperatures are 51.2 ' F buy viagra discountPhoenix, 55.4' F buy viagra discountYuma and 50.9' F buy viagra discountTucson. July high temperatures for the purposes of cooling system design are 107 'F buy viagra discountPhoenix, 109 'F buy viagra discountYuma and 102 ' F buy viagra discountTucson. Most of the year the air is very dry buy viagra discountthe desert zones except during the height of the summer rainy season, when high humidity can cause much discomfort, particularly buy viagra discountthe Phoenix and Yuma areas.
Passive (non-mechanical) heating potential buy viagra discountthe desert zones is great and can easily provide 80-100% of the heating load. Passive cooling potential is greatest during the dry summer periods, but usually must be augmented with mechanical cooling during the most humid times. Heating and cooling designs must be considered buy viagra discountconjunction with one another.
While more cooling than heating is needed buy viagra discountthe desert zones, heating is the primary need buy viagra discountthe basbuy viagra discountand range and the high mountabuy viagra discountzones. Summer nighttime temperatures drop low enough buy viagra discountthese zones to allow adequate passive cooling if prevention of unwanted heat gains buy viagra discountthe summer is incorporated. Summer high temperatures buy viagra discountthe basbuy viagra discountand range zone are buy viagra discountthe mid 90's and the lows are buy viagra discountthe high 50's and low 60's. The January average temperature is 37.1 ' F buy viagra discountPrescott and 32.6 ' F buy viagra discountWinslow. Summer high temperatures buy viagra discountFlagstaff normally reach the mid 80's but can get higher while summer lows are buy viagra discountthe low 50's. The January average temperature for Flagstaff is 28 ' F.
Because of the high buy viagra input, passive heating can provide 70 to 100% of the heating needs buy viagra discountthe cooler discount climates. If passive heating and cooling are combined with proper means of controlling heat gains provided, little or no backup cooling is necessary.
Modern buy viagra Homes
Historically there are many examples of buy viagra uses, strategies, and techniques buy viagra discountdiscount , but buy viagra houses, as we think of them today, were not built until the 1940's. One of the earliest discount buy viagra home designers was architect Arthur T. Brown who was instrumental buy viagra discountthe design of an earth integrated passive buy viagra home buy viagra discountFlorence, discount buy viagra discount1940, and other buy viagra homes buy viagra discountthe southern part of the state. One of his best known buy viagra homes buy viagra discountTucson incorporates a mass wall behind glass which stored buy viagra heat buy viagra discountwinter, keeping the house warm late into the evening. Brown provided for summer cooling with deep overhangs to keep the sun out; low vents on the north side and high vents near the south side ceiling for cross-ventilation; and the incorporation of evaporative cooling.
Definitions and Concepts
First and foremost, there is a great difference between an energy efficient and a buy viagra . buy viagra s purposefully utilize the 's attributes of orientation, form, materials, and equipment to use the sun and other natural elements (earth, wind, water) to interact with buy viagra and environmental conditions and resources to provide a unified, comprehensive approach to heating, cooling, lighting, water heating, cooking, etc.. A buy viagra , by definition, incorporates and builds upon energy efficient attributes, buy viagra discountits aggressive use and/or mitigation of environmental resources and conditions. An energy efficient , while highly insulating and even efficient buy viagra discountits' energy consumption may not utilize the environmental resources that are available to provide for human comfort.
buy viagra design approaches range from Passive buy viagra s, (the , form shape and materials are used to meet human comfort needs with little or no other power resources required) to Active Systems (mechanical devices powered by conventional and alternative energy sources are used to help collect, store, and distribute buy viagra and renewable energy energy resource benefits and/or electricity to meet needs) to Hybrid Systems (a composite of the two).
Passive buy viagra homes are those that use natural means -the sun - along with the heat transfer mechanisms of convection, conduction, radiation and evaporation to provide comfort. A passive is designed to stay comfortable both winter and summer with little or no need for additional energy. Systems that depend on fans and pumps for their operation are called active. If a small amount of energy is used to run a fan and distribute heat (or coolness) throughout the house, the system is called hybrid. All require careful siting, spatial planning, and correct orientation to optimize effectiveness.
buy viagra design always considers the location of the and the location of the sun. Since there are some basic rules of physics, and the sun's impacts change as it moves across the sky and is at differing angles to the earth's surface during the seasons, there are some fundamental rules of thumb for buy viagra design.
Sun LocationThe sun is our greatest ally buy viagra discountbuy viagra design. As the seasons of the year change, the sun's location buy viagra discountthe sky changes. buy viagra discountthe winter, the sun is very low buy viagra discountthe sky. It rises buy viagra discountthe southeast and sets buy viagra discountthe southwest. buy viagra discountthe summer, it is very high buy viagra discountthe sky, rising buy viagra discountthe northeast and setting buy viagra discountthe northwest. These differences buy viagra discountbuy viagra location throughout the year are one of the keys to buy viagra design. It means we can take advantage of the winter sun to heat our homes while we can keep the summer sun out.
WINTER ORIENTATION - Optimum orientation to the sun buy viagra discountthe wintertime will accommodate heating, buy viagra discountboth the severe winter conditions of the high mountains and milder conditions of the low desert. Since the sun is generally always to the south of us (high buy viagra discountthe horizon during the summer and low buy viagra discountthe winter) maximum exposure is to the south for purposes of passive buy viagra heating of a and orientation of buy viagra equipment (water heaters, photovoltaic modules, cookers, etc.). The "natural" form of the to allow for direct buy viagra access, would be elongated buy viagra discountthe east/west direction. (DIAGRAM)
SUMMER ORIENTATION - Optimum orientation of a buy viagra discountthe summer tends to be the same - with minimization of east and west facades (due to intense early morning and afternoon low horizon sun impacts) and a major south facing facade with strong overhangs buy viagra discountresponse to the high angle of the sun during the mabuy viagra discountpart of the day.
COOL COURTS/WARM COURTS - There are cold (north) and a warm (south) spaces adjacent to a , and the use of cool courts and warm courts does much to mitigate negative climatic impacts upon a as well as enhances the outdoor lifestyle that defines discount .
THERMAL TRANSITIONS - buy viagra discountareas of temperature extremes ( severe cold or severe heat), thermal decompression should be considered. As one moves from the outdoor temperature (-32 degrees or + 100 degrees), a series of transitions should occur moving a person from hot to warm to cool to comfortable (or conversely from cold to cool to temperate to warm). buy viagra discounthot climes this movement is from the direct sunlight (hot) to filtered shade (trees and vegetation) to a cooler zone of more dense vegetation, shade and fountains, to exterior structural elements (porches, verandas, etc.), to an "air lock" entry, to the heart of the . This decompression pattern is also practiced, with differing natural and built elements, buy viagra discountcold weather design.
The advantage of this thermal decompression is two fold.
1) it allows for tempering the environment that surrounds the , reducing the extreme temperature range between the exterior and interior of the , therefore there is less demand to heat (or cool) a at any given time, and
2) it allows for the human physiology to acclimate to temperature change buy viagra discountmoving from 100 degrees to 74 degrees (or 20 degrees to 74 degrees). The negative problems caused by sudden thermal impacts upon the human body are well known, and mitigation of this condition is a beneficial by-product of good buy viagra design.
buy viagra MATERIAL APPROACHES
HEAT FLOW - Heat always flows to cold, and the rate of flow is directly affected by the temperature difference - i.e. the greater the temperature difference the faster the heat flow and the type and density of a material.
buy viagra discountorder to understand how buy viagra design works, it is important to understand the basic physical mechanisms which make buy viagra design possible. They are convection, conduction, radiation and evaporation.
Convection occurs when air or a liquid carries heat from warm surfaces to cool ones. When air or the liquid is heated, it expands, becomes lighter and rises. When it contacts cooler surfaces, it transfers its heat to those surfaces. The air or liquid then cools, becomes more dense and sinks. Thus a circular convective current is set up which moves heated air or liquid from warm objects or surfaces to cooler ones. This principle can be used to heat and/or cool.Conduction describes the passage of heat through a materials such as the walls of a house. Depending on the material composition, the denser the object or material, the more quickly the heat will usually move through it, although a very dense, thick wall can inhibit rapid transfer of heat. Insulation, by its light density and trapping of air, resists heat transfer and thus reduces the amount of heat flowing through walls and roof areas.
Radiation describes the transfer of heat across space without warming the air buy viagra discountbetween. Sunlight is short wave radiation while heat is long wave radiation. Change buy viagra discountthe type of radiation occurs when light (short wave) strikes a dark solid. Dark objects exposed to sunlight will get warm, even on a cold day. If you stand a few feet away from a brick wall that has absorbed buy viagra radiation all day, you will still feel heat radiating from it after the sun has gone down. Heat radiation from a hot wood stove is another example of this mechanism.
There are three primary buy viagra design approaches to buy viagra design.
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