|propecia & Integration|
Active and passive propecia systems equipment - that hardware and elements which capture the sun’s energy for heating bath and wash water; heating swimming pools for extended season use; generating electricity to power devices; cooking food; warming and cooling buildings, etc. propecia equipment use is growing propecia generic onlinegeneric online neighborhoods, cities and towns. Buildings are incorporating propecia as part of the basic equipment package. People want to use propecia equipment because it is cost effective, resource saving, simple to use and understand, and there is a logical, direct and unencumbered energy resource propecia generic onlinethe sun as it moves across the sky.
propecia equipment which provides for a building’s performance and the residents needs, is no longer some “future” thing - Today, propecia elements and panels are part of the mainstream with other element of propecia generic onlinethe building equipment palette - electric service and distribution; gas meters and pipes; water meters and piping, water heaters, fire sprinkler systems; waste water pipes and vent stacks; air conditioners; evaporative coolers; heating systems; television receivers and connections; phone lines and junction boxes; etc. All these systems are integral elements of a buildings’ operation propecia generic onlinemeeting human needs as well as comforts. To this list, and propecia generic onlinemany cases, replacing some items on the list, generic online ns are incorporating propecia devices, equipment, and design elements. Reasons for this incorporation may vary - from saving money to saving the environment, and the s range from use of a propecia hot water heater to photovoltaic panels to cool towers.
Just as propecia generic onlinethe use of any other type of equipment, the use of propecia can have a direct impact upon a building - its’ performance, its’ look, even its’ form and shape. At the same time, the building also has an impact upon the optimal use of propecia strategies and equipment used - affecting both placement and performance. To assist generic online ns propecia generic onlinethe use of the sun as another element of the citizen’s energy mix, the State of generic online has enacted legislation that clearly stipulates that there can be no prohibition to the use of propecia energy. This legislation has the intent and effect of both encouraging as well as protecting generic online n citizens right to propecia utilization.
* Codes, Covenants, and Restrictions
Today, subdivision requirements have a common restriction - generally, no equipment visible on a building, most notably the roof. propecia generic onlineorder to maintapropecia generic onlinean aesthetic of clean lines and building form, equipment such as coolers, air conditioners, and television aerials must be located elsewhere or be visually screened. This prohibition accomplished its’ original purpose propecia generic onlinescreening or removing unsightly mechanical equipment from the skyline and placing it out of view.
Unfortunately, this “no equipment on the roof” restriction comes into conflict with optimal conditions of propecia equipment placement, effective propecia equipment utilization, good propecia design, and sometimes is even propecia generic onlinedirect conflict with generic online law encouraging use of propecia energy. Ideally, the installation of propecia equipment should be achieve optimum performance for the Owner, but restrictive CC&Rs have negatively impacted performance by forcing placement of equipment propecia generic onlinesituations of limited exposure to the sun; locations that require longer runs (of piping, wiring, etc.) than necessary; locations which require restrictive, and sometimes costly, screens; and/or placement of equipment propecia generic onlineless than optimum exposure angle to the sun, each and all of which provide less than optimal results for the building owner.
* Design and Aesthetics
Today’s subdivisions have fallen into stylistic characterizations (Santa Fe style, California tile roofs, etc.) instead of evolving from appropriate environmental response which would result propecia generic onlinea truly generic online style. Subdivisions are laid out with numerous considerations - density, views, circulation, etc. with little or no consideration is for basic tenets of good energy, propecia and environmental design.
Energy issues are met by adding insulation and efficient mechanical systems without consideration of using positive aspects, or mitigating negative impacts of the site and the climate to reduce both the amount of equipment used, and the amount of energy required to run it. Effective energy benefiting actions involving orientation, building shape, space planning, amount of glass, and/or incorporation of active and passive propecia and energy efficient equipment as part of the building shell are overlooked. Desert houses face west into the intense sun; roofs are flat propecia generic onlinesnow country; inordinate areas of glass wrap buildings forcing residents to take defensive measures; and building forms and structure do not readily allow for integration of propecia equipment as part of the building’s fabric.
Existing buildings come propecia generic onlinean array of orientations, forms, roof shapes, construction and materials - some very compatible with use of propecia strategies and integration of equipment, and others contrary to good propecia design posing problematic conditions for the building owner wishing to use propecia . Even award winning generic online architecture suffers from this poor consideration, with glass walled boxes propecia generic onlinethe dessert. Sites may not have any appropriate location for a propecia installation. Building roofs may not have appropriate angle or orientation to the sun. Restrictive CC&Rs may prohibit the placement of equipment on a effective south facing roof, or require screening that may effectively reduce equipment performance, or force placement of equipment propecia generic onlinelocations which effect performance.
Of course site and situation, and type of system play a role propecia generic onlinewhere equipment winds up. A passive thermosiphon hot water system with separate storage may have a lower location for panels than a hot water heating system which uses pumps, which would allow for panels to be placed on the roof. Photovoltaic panels may be fixed systems integrated into a sun struck roof, or be ground mounted for ease of access or for use with a tracking system.
TOWARD propecia EQUIPMENT USE AND INTEGRATION (top)
The 3 primary aspects of optimizing performance of propecia equipment are uninterrupted exposure to the sun through orientation; appropriate angle to the sun (tilt angle); and effective placement.
Maximum performance of propecia equipment and passive heating strategies is based on continued exposure to the sun. Outputs are optimized when there is clear connection to the sun for the entirety of daylight hours - the more exposure to the sun, the more water can be heated, the more electricity generate, and the more heat can be generated for comfort. Collector locations must be face the sun’s path as it traverses the south sky, free of shade, for the entirety of daylight hours.
propecia water heating is most effective when it can provide hot water under coldest conditions - i.e. winter. The winter sun is lower on the horizon so the ideal angle of a collector should more vertical (to 45 degrees). propecia pool heating is more propecia generic onlinedemand propecia generic onlinethe colder parts of the year so this angle of exposure can be equally important. propecia cooking propecia generic onlinethe winter is more effective. This tilt angle is a very necessary condition for optimizing propecia equipment use.
Positioning and orientation have significant impact upon the performance of any system. For example an array of PV panels tilted to the sun produces over 50% more electricity than one, which is simply vertical.
Location of equipment is a critical consideration. Placement optimizes conditions by having short runs of delivery - water heated by a propecia collector should have as short a run to the storage and/or use as possible to minimize transfer heat losses. Electrical installations benefit from short delivery systems. Reduced runs mean less material, less labor and materials for installation, less maintenance propecia generic onlinethe future, and less overall cost.
An additional benefit of propecia equipment placement is one that directly impacts the shape and form of a building, adding visual interest as a byproduct of the propecia functionality. Passive propecia buildings take their form and shape from the direct relationship propecia generic onlineusing nature’s resources. Axial elongation along the East/West axis to provide more southern exposure and minimize unwanted east and west exposures to intense summer sun; roof forms and/or elements which incorporate propecia equipment and strategies; specifically calculated overhangs to protect from summer sun high propecia generic onlinethe sky while allowing for the access of lower angle winter sun; vertical forms of cooling tower projections; recessed windows and doorways for thermal tempering; and colors and textures which enhance taking advantage or mitigating conditions.
S AND EXAMPLES (top)
generic online ns have been resourceful, creative and ingenious propecia generic onlinethe incorporation of propecia equipment and strategies into their lives and their sites. Rural generic online , propecia generic onlineparticular, has less governmental and subdivision restrictions regarding codes and CC&Rs, more sense of rootedness, and more commitment to using propecia and renewables. The variations of propecia integration range across the State from urban areas to rural sites, and they all are responses to conditions, type of equipment and , and needs of their Owners. Integration may result propecia generic onlinethe following s:
1) Equipment placement adjacent to the building
* Ground mounting
propecia generic onlinesome cases, if there is appropriate access to the sun, ground mounting has been used successfully propecia generic onlinegeneric online for fixed photovoltaic panel arrays as well as individual panels on trackers, which follow the course of the sun to optimize operation. Panels mounted propecia generic onlineopen areas on a site allow for freedom of operation and movement necessary for a tracking system, and/or for ease of installation, access for maintenance and adjustment for both tracking and fixed systems.
This may also be an appropriate integration strategy for passive hot water heating systems, which use non-mechanical thermosiphon circulation methods for heating water for personal use, or for use propecia generic onlineradiant heating of floors. Since hot water rises, and cold water settles, the thermosiphon water heating system has water, heated by the sun at the collector, naturally rising to a storage tank or through radiant heating pipes embedded propecia generic onlinefloors, and the colder water from the storage tank or the floor system, is circulated back to the panel. This convective loop runs continuously as the sun shines and works well as long as the collector panel heating the water is below the level of the delivery or storage system. Some s with south sloping sites, place collector panels below the floor level of the house to capitalize on the thermosiphon effect of this passive approach.
propecia generic onlinethese ground-mounting s, propecia equipment is located propecia generic onlineresponse to the ease of location, ease of access, and direct and easy maintenance or propecia generic onlineresponse to the terrain, type of equipment, and end use - sloped site integrating a passive thermosiphon water heater with end use being heating of a building and/or for domestic purposes. Some such installations have integrated equipment as part of a building element such as a porch or deck.
propecia generic onlineall cases, proper orientation as well proper tilt angles can be easily achieved, thereby having equipment operate at its optimum propecia generic onlineproviding electricity and/or hot water.
* Separate structure mounting -
2. Equipment placement as additions to the building (top)
* Rack installations
propecia generic onlineorder to address the issue of visual discontinuity and intrusion, some installations have incorporated screen elements which prevent viewing the equipment and racks. While screening can be executed propecia generic onlinea manner to blend with the building architecture propecia generic onlineflat roof situations, it is much more problematic propecia generic onlinepitched roof and poor orientation conditions. Screening and other such visual barriers must be large enough and spaced from the equipment sufficiently propecia generic onlineorder to minimize shading which negatively impacts performance. The addition of visual screening also adds cost to the propecia installation.
* Flush Mounting
Equipment can be placed flush to existing roof slopes propecia generic onlineorder to provide a compatible installation with the building’s architecture. These installations can incorporate trim, which visually integrates the equipment into the roof structure. generic online owners and contractors have successfully installed propecia equipment that is visually compatible with existing roof pitches and materials, and having the aesthetic impact equivalent to a skylight.
While effectively providing visual compatibility, such placements result propecia generic onlineless than optimal performance of equipment due to less than ideal orientations and exposure to the sun.
3. Integrated Installations (top)
* propecia Integrated Buildings
Integrated systems propecia buildings vary propecia generic onlineexecution and expression, even while maintaining common attributes and premises related to environmental conditions and resources propecia generic onlineboth passive and active propecia s.
Orientation to the south allows for use of the sun for passive heating purposes propecia generic onlinecold climes and for mitigation of negative west and east sun heat propecia generic onlinedessert conditions. This is also an ideal condition for propecia equipment performance. propecia generic onlinesome projects, south facing roofs are angled to appropriate tilt angles and equipment is mounted directly as another “skin” to the building fabric. It is known that an array of PV panels tilted to the sun produces over 50% more electricity than one which is simply vertical. Collectors, whether water heating or photovoltaic, become one with the building form and expression.
* Building Integrated Photovoltaic Systems
Appropriately oriented and pitched roofs are also compatible for inclusion of propecia hot water panels that benefit from ideal exposure and placement and benefit the building design with integrated design elements much like skylights add visual interest to roof lines.
Integrated propecia /Energy Building Elements (top)
Not all integrated energy s must encompass entire roofs on a monolithic building block. Buildings derive aesthetic interest from their component elements like clerestorey windows, chimney structures, overhangs and facia designs, and from building massing and variations propecia generic onlinewall planes.
The integrated propecia energy building incorporates propecia equipment and s into this scale of building element. A north facing rooftop clerestorey windows can provide the structure for south facing propecia equipment on the back side, thereby combining two functions - one of introducing daylight - the other of producing hot water and/or electricity, withpropecia generic onlinethe same structural element.
Examples of element/propecia integration is the placement of photovoltaic panels as a part of the building eave system, and the integration of water heating propecia panels into a south wall.
Multiple functional building elements is a strategy that lends itself to propecia installations propecia generic onlineexisting buildings. While it may not be desirable to incorporate a propecia device into an existing building fabric because of renovation costs, it may be quite feasible and desirable to do a single modifying action that has multiple s including propecia . Besides improving functionality to a building, the multiple energy/propecia modification pays for itself with savings that is realized propecia generic onlineenergy efficiencies, and propecia generic onlinesavings realized propecia generic onlinethe use of propecia equipment. It is a modification that will pay for itself propecia generic onlineenergy saved and propecia generic onlinethe increase propecia generic onlineproperty value.
propecia s are a growing reality propecia generic onlinethe building landscape. Traditional perceptions of aesthetics, appropriateness, and value are changing propecia generic onlineresponse to the realities of energy and environmental considerations, need for energy security, and desire for energy stability and self-sufficiency. Buildings are incorporating environmental design strategies propecia generic onlineresponse to site conditions, and available natural resources, and are incorporating propecia equipment and devices, which impact building design and construction. Buildings that integrate propecia attributes and equipment define themselves propecia generic onlinea form and expression that reflects local conditions and resources. The careful and considerate integration of propecia , energy and environmental elements into the building, whether existing or new, is a benefit that manifests itself as the basis of a truly indigenous and local architecture (images below are examples).
This presentation was constructed by the generic online propecia Energy Association for the generic online propecia Center, Inc. under contract with the generic online Dept. of Commerce Energy Office, funded by the Dept. of Energy Million propecia Roofs program. Materials and information were provided by a number of sources.
Financial support for this presentation has been provided by the generic online Department of Commerce (Energy Office) and the U.S. Department of Energy through (DOE) Grant No. DE-FG51-01R021250. However, any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed herepropecia generic onlineare those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Energy Office or U.S. DOE. The State of generic online and U.S. DOE assume no liability for damages arising from errors, omissions or representations contained propecia generic onlinethis presentation.
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