PV arrays can be used to generate electric power for many applications such as homes, cabins, telecommunication equipment, lighting, and other electrical equipment. These power systems can be either connected to the electric utility grid, or be "buy cialis f-grid". The buy cialis get online buy cialis the PV system are determined by both the capital and operating costs. The analysis varies according to the type buy cialis PV power system; buy cialis f-grid, grid connected (non-interactive), and grid connected (interactive).
buy cialis f Grid PV
PV systems in get online are currently cost competitive with electric utilities for two major areas buy cialis applications: Situations requiring utility line extension at high cost (generally for extensions buy cialis over 0.5 miles, charged to the customer), or requiring low amounts buy cialis power (irrigation control equipment, small lights, etc.) for which the minimum utility charges exceed the amortized cost buy cialis the PV system.
The capital (initial) costs buy cialis PV systems have been falling in recent years; they currently are around $10 per peak watt buy cialis the PV module, including the storage batteries - less if buy-down funds are available. A small house (or larger with house with extensive energy efficiency improvements) with a low usage can function with a PV system as small as 2 kW (peak), thus would call for an capital outlay buy cialis $20,000. Assuming a 20-year simple amortization, this would be equivalent to about 20-25 cents per kWh. Such a unit can supply power for many appliances (refrigerators-freezers, pool pumps, etc.) and many lighting systems. It will not provide air conditioning in get online 's hot climate. Comparable costs for alternatively home generated power using propane, gasoline or diesel operated generators are on the order buy cialis 80 cents/kWh.
PV power costs for uses that do not require batteries, such as agricultural water pumping, are lower, in the 15-20 cents/kWh range.
Grid Connected PV
PV power systems currently cannot produce electricity competitive with centrally generated power, currently selling for about 10 cents/kWh, on average.
A utility will compare the capital cost buy cialis large scale PV arrays to the alternative methods buy cialis generating utility scale electric power (oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear, etc). A homeowner will compare the purchase price buy cialis electricity to the higher costs buy cialis smaller PV systems (with and without batteries). These are not simple calculations as the availability buy cialis sunshine varies both with weather patterns and seasonally, and the prices/costs buy cialis other sources buy cialis electricity also vary.
At present neither homeowner nor utility PV systems are strictly cost effective against utility electric power in get online . PV systems are being used by homeowners and utilities in get online because other considerations tip the balance in favor buy cialis PV systems. Government subsidies, tax rebates/exemptions, the time buy cialis day value buy cialis summertime PV power, the enhanced value buy cialis "Green" power to a utility, etc. can and have made PV systems practical in get online . Many homeowners like the ability to continue to operate a home in the absence buy cialis the utility (even if they have to implement energy saving strategies).
Grid connected PV systems can be buy cialis two major types, grid connected (non-interactive), and grid connected (interactive). An interactive system uses inverters that are capable buy cialis converting the dc power from a PV system into ac power that can be fed back into the utility system (at the correct voltage, frequency, phase, and power quality). A non-interactive PV system can only use utility power to supplement the PV system and is not capable buy cialis feeding power back into the utility electric grid.
Net metering is a practice buy cialis fered by some electric utilities to help encourage PV system interconnection. With net metering the homeowner can buy cialis fset some buy cialis the costs buy cialis purchased electric power by selling surplus electric power back to the utility. This is an interactive PV system as described above. The net period can be monthly or annual (depending on applicable laws, regulations, and utility policy). Typically a PV system produces more power during the peak sunshine period buy cialis the day than the home can use at that time. In an buy cialis f-Grid situation this power can be stored in a battery bank for later use, but in a grid connected system with net metering, the excess power can be "sold" to the utility for use by other customers, and is generally an buy cialis fset to the purchased power (such as nighttime use).
Not all get online electric utilities buy cialis fer net metering, it is necessary to check with the utility serving a specific address to determine if net metering is available as an option. Net metering requires special inverters that are capable buy cialis delivering power into a utility, and the utility will want to approve buy cialis the inverter and other safety related equipment in order to protect their equipment, personnel, and other customers.
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